臺大外語教學暨資源中心英語學習報第 363 期 發行日期 2019-06-01

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  Ieoh Ming Pei Read more on VOA.

Chinese-American Pei, Famed Architect, Dies at 102

著名華裔美籍建築師貝聿銘 102 歲仙逝

I.M. Pei, the versatile, globe-trotting architect who revived the Louvre with a giant glass pyramid and captured the spirit of rebellion at the multi-shaped Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, has died at age 102.

      曾足跡踏遍世界各地的(globe-trotting)建築師貝聿銘(I.M. Pei)於日前與世長辭,享嵩壽 102 歲。他一生多才多藝(versatile),不僅以巨型玻璃金字塔(pyramid)重新改造(revive)法國羅浮博物館(Louvre,以下簡稱「羅浮宮」),還以結合多種幾何造形的建築展現出美國搖滾名人堂(Rock and Roll Hall of Fame)反叛(rebellion)的精神。


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外語教學暨資源中心為了持續提供更優質的英語電子學習報,想了解廣大的英語電子報用戶群對於中心電子報的想法,以做為持續改進的依據。 您只要在6月1日至6月23日之間填寫問卷,就有機會獲得中心的精美禮品喔。預計6月25日通知得獎者。 問卷填答網址:請點擊

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外語教學暨資源中心(以下簡稱本中心)推出三項自學認證來強化您的英文實力: 1.Presentation ABC簡報英語認證 、2.線上英語自學認證 、 3.高階英語字彙達人認證。藉由線上自學並通過認證考試者,將由本中心核發自學證書與精美贈品喔,可自行選擇三種不同的認證,最多可領取三張證書喔。

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◎ 英語自學認證資訊


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外語教學暨資源中心專為本校教職員工生、退休教職員工及校友編製了線上菲律賓語課程,內容涵蓋了生活必需的 6 大主題,還有真人情境對話影片帶給您身歷其境的學習體驗,讓您輕鬆學會基礎菲律賓語會話。

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常聽人說:「我的英語說的不流利。」說流利英語的願望是個很模糊的大目標,而「流利」一詞不夠明確,流利可指說話速度(但說的快不一定會將意義表達清楚),但句子說的有停頓、咬字清楚、有輕重音,反而是流暢英語的表現。因為英語是個節奏 (rhythm) 的語言:字有輕重音、句子速度唸起來有快慢、語調有高低等。句子中的四大詞類:名詞、動詞、形容詞、副詞都是要唸重的,因為這些是傳達意義或信息的字 (content words)。句子中的function words如:助動詞、介系詞、冠詞、代名詞都唸輕 (unstressed words)、唸快,黏在一起,不需說清楚才跟得上節奏。 

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《如何寫好英文E-mail 》




Chinese-American Pei, Famed Architect, Dies at 102
VOA News
May 16, 2019 7:36 PM Associated Press (source)

Chinese-American Pei, Famed Architect, Dies at 102

著名華裔美籍建築師貝聿銘 102 歲仙逝

May 16, 2019 7:36 PM

Associated Press


I.M. Pei, the versatileglobe-trotting architect who revived the Louvre with a giant glass pyramid and captured the spirit of rebellion at the multi-shaped Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, has died at age 102.

Pei's death was confirmed Thursday by Marc Diamond, a spokesman for Pei's New York architectural firm, Pei Cobb Freed & Partners.

Pei's works ranged from the trapezoidal addition to the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., to the chiseled towers of the National Center of [sic] Atmospheric Research that blend in with the reddish mountains in Boulder, Colorado. 

His buildings added elegance to landscapes worldwide with their powerful geometric shapes and grand spaces. Among them are the striking steel and glass Bank of China skyscraper in Hong Kong and the Fragrant Hill Hotel near Beijing. His work spanned decades, starting in the late 1940s and continuing through the new millennium. Two of his last major projects, the Museum of Islamic Art, located on an artificial island just off the waterfront in Doha, Qatar, and the Macau Science Center, in China, opened in 2008 and 2009. 

Pei painstakingly researched each project, studying its use and relating it to the environment. But he also was interested in architecture as art -- and the effect he could create. 

"At one level my goal is simply to give people pleasure in being in a space and walking around it," he said. "But I also think architecture can reach a level where it influences people to want to do something more with their lives. That is the challenge that I find most interesting." 

Pei, who as a schoolboy in Shanghai was inspired by its building boom in the 1930s, immigrated to the United States and studied architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University. He advanced from his early work of designing office buildings, low-income housing and mixed-used complexes to a worldwide collection of museums, municipal buildings and hotels. 

He fell into a modernist style blending elegance and technology, creating crisp, precise buildings. 

His big break was in 1964, when he was chosen over many prestigious architects, such as Louis Kahn and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, to design the John F. Kennedy Memorial Library in Boston. 

At the time, Jacqueline Kennedy said all the candidates were excellent, "But Pei! He loves things to be beautiful." The two became friends. 

slightunpretentious man, Pei developed a reputation as a skilled diplomat, persuading clients to spend the money for his grand-scale projects and working with a cast of engineers and developers. 

Some of his designs were met with much controversy, such as the 71-foot faceted glass pyramid in the courtyard of the Louvre museum in Paris. French President Francois Mitterrand, who personally selected Pei to oversee the decaying, overcrowded museum's renovationendured a barrage of criticism when he unveiled the plan in 1984. 

Many of the French vehemently opposed such a change to their symbol of their culture, once a medieval fortress and then a national palace. Some resented that Pei, a foreigner, was in charge. 

But Mitterrand and his supporters prevailed and the pyramid was finished in 1989. It serves as the Louvre's entrance, and a staircase leads visitors down to a vast, light-drenched lobby featuring ticket windows, shops, restaurants, an auditorium and escalators to other parts of the vast museum. 

"All through the centuries, the Louvre has undergone violent change," Pei said. "The time had to be right. I was confident because this was the right time." 

Another building designed by Pei's firm -- the John Hancock Tower in Boston -- had a questionable future in the early 1970s when dozens of windows cracked and popped out, sending glass crashing to the sidewalks, during the time the building was under construction. 

flurry of lawsuits followed among the John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Co., the glass manufacturer, and Pei's firm. A settlement was reached in 1981. 

No challenge seemed to be too great for Pei, including the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, which sits on the shore of Lake Erie in downtown Cleveland, Ohio. Pei, who admitted he was just catching up with the Beatles, researched the roots of rock 'n' roll and came up with an array of contrasting shapes for the museum. He topped it off with a transparent tent-like structure, which was "open -- like the music," he said. 

In 1988, President Reagan honored him with a National Medal of Arts. He also won the prestigious Pritzker Architecture Prize, 1983, and the American Institute of Architects Gold Medal, 1979. President George H.W. Bush awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1992. 

Pei officially retired in 1990 but continued to work on projects. Two of his sons, Chien Chung Pei and Li Chung Pei, former members of their father's firm, formed Pei Partnership Archiitects [sic] in 1992. Their father's firm, previously I.M. Pei and Partners, was renamed Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. 

The museum in Qatar that opened in 2008 was inspired by Islamic architectural history, especially the 9th century mosque of Ahmed ibn Tulun in the Egyptian capital of Cairo. It was established by the tiny, oil-rich nation to compete with rival Persian Gulf countries for international attention and investment. 

Ieoh Ming Pei (pronounced YEE-oh ming pay) was born April 26, 1917, in Canton, China, the son of a banker. He later said, "I did not know what architecture really was in China. At that time, there was no difference between an architect, a construction man, or an engineer." 

Pei came to the United States in 1935 with plans to study architecture, then return to practice in China. However, World War II and the revolution in China prevented him from coming back. 

During the war, Pei worked for the National Defense Research Committee. As an "expert" in Japanese construction, his job was to determine the best way to burn down Japanese towns. "It was awful," he later said. 

In 1948, New York City real estate developer William Zeckendorf hired Pei as his director of architecture. During this period, Pei worked on many large urban projects and gained experience in areas of building development, economics and construction. 

Some of his early successes included the Mile High Center office building in Denver, the Kips Bay Plaza Apartments in Manhattan, and the Society Hill apartment complex in Philadelphia. 

Pei established his own architectural firm in 1955, a year after he became a U.S. citizen. He remained based in New York City. Among the firm's accomplishments are the Jacob Javits Convention Center in New York City and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington. 

Pei's wife, Eileen, who he married in 1942, died in 2014. A son, T'ing Chung, died in 2003. Besides sons Chien Chung Pei and Li Chung Pei, he is survived by a daughter, Liane. 

足跡踏遍世界各地的(globe-trotting)建築師貝聿銘(I.M. Pei)於日前與世長辭,享嵩壽 102 歲。他一生多才多藝(versatile),不僅以巨型玻璃金字塔(pyramid)重新改造(revive)法國羅浮博物館(Louvre,以下簡稱「羅浮宮」),還以結合多種幾何造形的建築展現出美國搖滾名人堂(Rock and Roll Hall of Fame反叛(rebellion)的精神。

「貝.科布.弗里德及合夥人建築師事務所(Pei Cobb Freed & Partners)」發言人(spokesman)馬克.戴蒙德(Marc Diamond)於週四(編按:2019 年 5 月 16 日)證實了這項消息。這間事務所是貝聿銘位於美國紐約(New York)的建築(architectural)公司。

貝聿銘的建築作品涵蓋甚廣,從華府(Washington, D.C.)國家藝廊(National Gallery of Art)擴建的梯形(trapezoidal)建物,到科羅拉多州(Colorado)波德市(Boulder)國家大氣研究中心(National Center for Atmospheric Research如鑿刻般的(chiseled)塔樓等皆包含在內。這些塔樓與當地淡紅色的(reddish)山脈融為一體。

他的建築以有力的幾何(geometric)外形與寬敞的(grand)空間為世界各地的風景增添幾許優雅的氛圍,例如香港(Hong Kong)中銀(Bank of China)大廈與北京(Beijing)近郊的香山飯店(Fragrant Hill Hotel)。其中,中銀大廈是座以顯著的(striking)鋼鐵和玻璃建造而成的摩天大樓(skyscraper)。他的作品橫跨(span)數十年,起於 1940 年代後期,一路持續至新的千禧(millennium)世代。他人生晚期參與的重大工程中,位於卡達(Qatar)首都杜哈(Doha)濱水區人工島上的伊斯蘭藝術博物館(the Museum of Islamic Art)與中國的澳門科學館(the Macau Science Center)分別於 2008 年及 2009 年開幕。



1930 年代,貝聿銘還在上海(Shanghai)念書時,當地建築業的蓬勃發展(boom)就已啟發(inspire)他對建築的興趣。隨後他移民美國,並在麻省理工學院(Massachusetts Institute of Technology,MIT)與哈佛大學(Harvard University)攻讀建築學系與研究所。他不斷精進,從早期設計辦公大樓、低收入戶住宅及多用途的綜合大樓(complex),到後來設計世界各地的博物館、市政(municipal)大樓以及飯店。


他在 1964 年迎來人生中的大好機會(big break):從路易斯.康(Louis Kahn)、路德維希.密斯.凡德羅(Ludwig Mies van der Rohe)等眾多頗負盛名的(prestigious)的建築師中脫穎而出,負責設計波士頓(Boston)的甘迺迪圖書館(John F. Kennedy Memorial Library)。

那時,甘迺迪總統遺孀賈桂琳.甘迺迪(Jacqueline Kennedy)談到,所有建案申請人都很優秀,「不過,貝聿銘!他對追求美好的事物總是不遺餘力!」兩人從此成為朋友。


他的某些設計引起不少爭議(controversy),例如坐落在巴黎(Paris)羅浮宮中庭 71 英尺高的玻璃金字塔。法國總統法蘭索瓦.密特朗(Francois Mitterrand)請貝聿銘掌管(oversee)羅浮宮的翻新(renovation)設計,當時的羅浮宮正逐漸崩壞(decaying)且過於擁擠。然而,當他於 1984 年公布(unveil)改造計畫時,卻飽受(endure)大眾接二連三的(a barrage of . . .)抨擊。

許多法國人強烈(vehemently)反對象徵法國文化的羅浮宮接受這樣的改變。羅浮宮曾是中世紀的(medieval)城堡,後來成為皇宮。有些人則羅浮宮由身為外國人的貝聿銘負責(in charge)改造感到憤恨不平(resent . . .)

不過,密特朗總統和他的支持者仍占上風(prevail),這座金字塔最終在 1989 年竣工,除了作為羅浮宮的入口處,也具有樓梯(staircase)的功能,引導訪客往下進入寬敞,充滿光線的大廳。大廳裡有售票窗口、商店、餐館、禮堂以及可以通往這占地廣大的博物館裡其他展覽會場的電動扶梯。


1970 年代早期,位於波士頓的「約翰.漢考克大廈(John Hancock Tower)」也是由貝聿銘公司設計,卻面臨了不確定的(questionable)未來:許多窗戶從仍在興建中(under construction)的大廈破裂並彈出,導致玻璃掉落到人行道上。

隨之而來是如雪花(flurry)般的訴訟(lawsuit)案,這些案子都是針對「約翰.漢考克互助壽險公司(John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Co.)」、玻璃製造商(manufacturer)以及貝聿銘的公司。訴訟案最終在 1981 年達成了和解(settlement)

對貝聿銘來說,似乎沒有什麼挑戰是太大而無法完成的,包括坐落於俄亥俄州(Ohio State)克里夫蘭(Cleveland)市中心伊利湖(Lake Erie)湖濱的搖滾名人堂。貝聿銘承認他那時才剛趕上英國搖滾樂團披頭四(The Beatles)的風潮。在研究搖滾樂(rock 'n' roll)的起源後,他提出運用一系列(array)對比鮮明的(contrasting)幾何造形來建造這座博物館的想法。最後他以類似帳篷形狀的透明(transparent)結構順利完成(top . . . off)名人堂的興建。這個結構很「開放,就像音樂一樣」,他解釋道。

1988 年,雷根總統(President Reagan)頒發國家藝術勳章(National Medal of Arts)表揚貝聿銘。他也曾在 1983 年榮獲頗具聲譽的普立茲克建築獎(Pritzker Architecture Prize),1979 年則榮獲美國建築師學會金獎(American Institute of Architects Gold Medal,AIA Gold Medal)。1992 年時,老布希總統(President George H.W. Bush)頒發總統自由勳章(Presidential Medal of Freedom)給他。

貝聿銘於 1990 年正式退休,但仍持續參與工程案。兩名兒子貝建中(Chien Chung Pei)與貝禮中(Li Chung Pei)曾效力於他的公司。之後兩人在 1992 年成立貝氏建築師事務所(Pei Partnership Architects)。貝聿銘的公司原名為「貝聿銘及合夥人建築師事務所(I.M. Pei and Partners)」,後來更名為「貝.科布.弗里德及合夥人建築師事務所(Pei Cobb Freed & Partners)」。

位於卡達的伊斯蘭藝術博物館於 2008 年開幕,其建造受到伊斯蘭(Islamic)建築史的啟發,尤其是第 9 世紀建在埃及(Egypt)首都開羅(Cairo)的伊本‧圖倫清真寺mosque of Ahmed ibn Tulun)。這座博物館是由卡達這個國土面積極小但富有石油資源的國家所設立,目的在於和波斯灣(Persian Gulf)周圍互為對手的(rival)鄰國競爭國際能見度與資金挹注。

貝聿銘 1917 年 4 月26 日生於中國廣州(Canton),為銀行家之子。他後來表示:「以前在中國時,不知道什麼是建築學?因為那時建築師、施工員和工程師之間沒有什麼不同。」

貝聿銘在 1935 年來到美國攻讀建築,原本計劃學成後返回中國執業。然而,第二次世界大戰(World War II)以及中國發生的文化大革命(revolution)讓他無法順利回國。 

戰爭期間,貝聿銘為美國國防部科研委員會(National Defense Research Committee)效力。身為日本建築結構的「專家」,他必須決定何種才是焚毀(burn down)日本城鎮的最佳方式。「那工作實在糟糕透頂!」他日後回憶道。

1948 年紐約市的房地產(real estate)開發商威廉.傑肯多夫(William Zeckendorf)聘僱貝聿銘為建築總監。這段期間,貝聿銘經手許多大型的都市工程案並獲得有關建築發展、經濟與建設方面的經驗。

他早期的成就包括位在科羅拉多州丹佛市(Denver)的「哩高中心(Miles High Center)」辦公大樓,紐約曼哈頓(Manhattan)的「基普斯灣廣場公寓(Kips Bay Plaza Apartments)」,以及賓州(Pennsylvania)費城(Philadelphia)的「社會山(Society Hill)」公寓綜合大樓。

貝聿銘於 1955 成立自己的建築公司,而在前一年(編按:1954 年)他剛成為美國公民。此後他主要在紐約工作與生活。其公司幾項重要成就(accomplishment)包含紐約的「賈維茨會議中心(Jacob Javits Convention Center)」和華府的「美國大屠殺遇難者紀念館(United States Holocaust Memorial Museum)。

貝聿銘與太太盧淑華(音譯,又譯盧愛玲;英文為「Elieen Loo」)結縭於 1942 年,太太已在 2014 年辭世。他共有 3 名兒子,其中貝定中(T'ing Chung Pei)於 2003 年過世;除了另外兩名兒子貝建中與貝禮中之外,他還有一名女兒貝蓮(Liane Pei)。

Language Notes

versatile [`vɝsətl̩] / [`vɜsə͵taɪl] (a) 多才多藝的;有多種技能的
* 本字亦常指「多種用途的;多方面適用的;萬用的」或「易變的;反覆無常的」

globe-trotting [`gloʊb͵trɑtɪŋ] / [`glob͵trɑtɪŋ] (a) 遊歷世界的
* 本字也可作名詞,意即「環球旅行」
* trot [trɑt] (v)(四肢動物的)小跑,慢跑

revive [rɪ`vaɪv] (v)(使)甦醒;(使)復原;(使)復興;(使)重新流行
* 注意本字重音在第 2 音節;建議不妨以字首 "re-"「再;重新」來理解與記憶本字

rebellion [rɪ`beljən] / [rɪ`beliən] / [rɪ`bɛljən] (n) 反叛,造反;叛亂
* 注意本字重音在第 2 音節;亦常指「叛逆;抗爭;反抗」
* rebel [rɪ`bel] / [rɪ`bɛl] (v) 武力反抗;造反;反叛

trapezoidal [͵træpə`zɔɪdl̩] / [͵træpɪ`zɔɪdl̩] (a) 梯形的
* 注意本字重音在第 3 音節
* trapezoid [`træpə͵zɔɪd] / [`træpɪ͵zɔɪd] (n) 梯形

grand [grænd] (a)(用在地方或建築物名前表示其規模)大的 
* 本字亦可指「宏偉的,壯麗的;顯赫的」或「重大的;主要的;首要的」

span [spæn] (v)(時間)持續,跨越 
* 本字也有「橫跨」之意;亦常作名詞,指「一段時間」或「長度;寬度;跨度」

complex [`kɑmpleks] / [`kɑmplɛks] (n) 綜合大樓;建築群
* 本字另有「(尤指由過去的不快經歷或自我評價不高造成的)情結,心理負擔,病態心理」之意;也常作形容詞,重音可在第 1 或第 2 音節(發音為 [kəm`pleks] / [kɑm`plɛks]),指「由許多相關的不同部分組成的;構造複雜的」或「難懂的,費解的;錯綜複雜的」

crisp [krɪsp] (a)(聲音或形象)清晰明瞭的;(說話、寫作或行爲)乾脆俐落的,明快的
* 本字另有「脆的;易碎的」、「(紙或布)平展的」、「(天氣)乾冷的,晴冷的」與「(空氣)清爽的,涼爽的」等意

break [breɪk] / [brek] (n) 機會;機緣;好運 
* 本字也常指「中止,中斷」、「休息;(用茶點的)休息時間」、「課間休息」或「(中斷工作或日常活動的)休息時間;假期」
* big break (n phr) 大好機會;難得的好運

prestigious [pres`tɪdʒəs] / [pre`stidʒəs] / [prɛs`tɪdʒɪəs] (a) 有威望的,有聲望的,受尊敬的
* 注意本字重音在第 2 音節
* prestige [pres`tiʒ] / [prɛs`tiʒ] (n) 威信,聲望;魅力

slight [slaɪt] (a)(人)瘦小的,纖弱的
* 本字亦常指「少量的,微小的」

unpretentious [͵ʌnprɪ`tenʃəs] / [͵ʌnprɪ`tɛnʃəs] (a) 不矯飾的;低調的,不張揚的 
* 本字由表示「不,非,無,相反」的字首 "un-" 與形容詞 "pretentious"「(尤指在文學藝術方面)炫耀的,矯飾的,自以為是的」組成;注意重音在第 3 音節

a barrage of something (n phr) 連珠發炮的(投訴、批評或質問);接二連三的 . . . . . . 
* barrage [bə`rɑʒ] / [`bærɑʒ] (n) 彈幕;阻攔;阻塞

unveil [ʌn`veɪl] / [ʌn`vel] (v)(首次)展示,介紹,推出;將 . . . . . . 公諸於眾
* 本字由表示「不,非,無,相反」的字首 "un-" 與動詞 "veil"「用幕遮掩;(尤指)用面紗遮住」組成;注意重音在第 2 音節

vehemently [`viəməntli] / [`viəməntlɪ] (adv) 激烈地;強烈地;猛烈地;熱烈地
* vehement [`viəmənt] / [`viɪmənt] (a)(感情)強烈的;猛烈的

resent [rɪ`zent] / [rɪ`zɛnt] (v) 感到憤恨;不滿;憎惡 
* 注意本字重音在第 2 音節

prevail [prɪ`veɪl] / [prɪ`vel] (v) 占優勢,占上風
* 注意本字重音在第 2 音節;另常見意思為「流行,盛行」

violent [`vaɪələnt] (a) 猛烈的;強烈的;激烈的 
* 本字也常指「使用暴力的;暴力的;暴力引起的」或「(顏色)極其鮮豔的,明豔刺眼的」

questionable [`kwestʃənəbl̩] / [`kwɛstʃənəbl̩] (a) 不確定的;未必正確的;值得懷疑的

flurry [`flɜri] / [`flʌri] / [`flɝɪ] (n) 小陣雪;陣風;一陣忙亂(或激動、關注)

settlement [`sɛtl̩mənt] (n) 庭外和解;庭外和解費 
* 本字另有「(結束爭端的)協定」、「定居;定居地」、「結算;結帳;支付」及「(建築物、地面的)沈降,下沈」等意 
* settle [`sɛtl̩] (v) 確定;決定;解決,結束(爭端等)

array [ə`reɪ] / [ə`re] (n)(尤指非常有吸引力、令人讚賞並常以特定的方式排列的)一系列,一批,大量,大群
* 注意本字重音在第 2 音節;也可作動詞,指「佈置;排列」或「配置(兵力)」

top something off (v phr) 順利完成;圓滿完成

rival [`raɪvl̩] (a) 競爭的;對手的
* 本字也可作名詞,意即「競爭對手;敵手」;或作動詞,意指「可與 . . . . . . 相媲美,比得上」

accomplishment [ə`kɑmplɪʃmənt] / [ə`kʌmplɪʃmənt] (n) 成就;成績
* 注意本字重音在第 2 音節;另有「完成;實現」或「造詣;技能;才華」之意
* accomplish [ə`kɑmplɪʃ] / [ə`kʌmplɪʃ] (v) 完成;實現;達到;做到

Check your vocabulary!

Fill in the blanks with a word or phrase from the list above. Make necessary changes. After you finish, highlight the blanks to reveal the hidden answers.
1. Nikka Costa is a rare treasure; a one-time child star who has grown into an unpretentious, genuinely talented adult.
2. For at least a month before Christmas we were subjected to an endless barrage of ads for fattening festive foods.
3. While it is crucial to learn and grow from the disappointments, it is equally important to recognize accomplishments.
4. Few musicians are as versatile as Albert is: he plays, composes, arranges, and teaches.
5. The evening was topped off by a special showing of the museum's new Degas exhibit.
6. Some become intent on destroying Gulliver for making such a bold statement, while others support him vehemently.

編譯:外語教學暨資源中心 編輯小組