臺大外語教學暨資源中心英語學習報第 352 期 發行日期 2018-12-01

  Youth Optimism Higher in Lower-Income CountriesRead more on VOA.

Scientists: Wind, Drought Worsen Fires, Not Bad Management


WASHINTON — Both nature and humans share blame for California's devastating wildfires, but forest management did not play a major role, despite President Donald Trump's claims, fire scientists say.


◎ 107-1 English Corner 熱烈推出!!

107-1 English Corner 熱烈推出!!



日期:11/02、11/16、11/23、11/30、12/07、12/14、12/21、12/28(共 8 場次)

時間:週五中午 12:20 ~ 1:30

地點:外語教學暨資源中心 203 教室(電腦教室請勿飲食,感謝配合!)




◎ 107-1 說說角英語口語訓練工作坊 熱烈推出!!

107-1 說說角英語口語訓練工作坊 熱烈推出!!




日期:10/1、10/8、10/15、10/22、11/12、11/19、11/26、12/3、12/10(共 9 場次)

時間:週一晚間 6:25 ~ 8:10

地點:外語教學暨資源中心 101 / 202 教室(電腦教室請勿飲食,感謝配合!)


◎ 107-1 線上外語自學教室工作坊

107-1 線上外語自學教室工作坊

外語教學暨資源中心提供線上外語自學教室工作坊E-freeway Workshop,每場工作坊將提供各主題的學習技巧教學/聽力技巧大公開/英語口說寫作技巧等,並輔以線上自學資源的介紹,讓您能夠持續不斷突破學習困境,並從中培養正確的學習語言技巧,場次名額有限,要報名動作要快!想要提升您的英語能力,一定要來參加,而且要準時喔。參加前,記得事先申請該場次的課程軟體帳號!


◎ 高階英語字彙達人認證


外語教學暨資源中心(以下簡稱本中心)自 106 學年度起推出高階英語字彙達人認證課程,鼓勵臺大教職員工生使用「E-freeway線上外語自學教室」之相關資源,以線上自學方式,有效達成學習目標。完成課程並通過考試者將得到本中心核發的自學證書。本學期認證考試已可開始申請囉!

網址:https://efreeway2.fltc.ntu.edu.tw/interactive.php →(左邊選單)高階英語字彙達人認證

◎ 線上菲律賓語課程


外語教學暨資源中心專為本校教職員工生、退休教職員工及校友編製了線上菲律賓語課程,內容涵蓋了生活必需的 6 大主題,還有真人情境對話影片帶給您身歷其境的學習體驗,讓您輕鬆學會基礎菲律賓語會話。

詳情請見:東南亞語言暨文化資源網站首頁 → 線上菲律賓語課程

Feature of the Week
Apartment Therapy

Apartment Therapy — 居家創意靈感的集散地

《Apartment Therapy》是個提供居家空間靈感的網站,網站蒐羅了各種居家設計創意,像是專家建議、家用品購物指南、DIY 教學等,能夠讓我們的居住空間變得更美麗、更有設計感,一起來 Get Inspired 吧。

Apps for Learning English
BBC Learning English


還需要介紹嗎?《BBC Learning English》是全球最受歡迎的英語學習網站之一,在廣大使用者的聲聲呼喊下終於推出 APP 了!所有您喜歡的單元現在都可以透過 APP 取得,英語學習隨身帶著走。

English Learning Video
English Learning Video

13 Study Tips: The Science of Studying Smart

常覺得腦容量不夠用嗎?人的大腦空間有限,確實會有感到腦容量無法負荷的時候。這時如何有效地運用腦容量就非常重要了。 這支影片將教您 13 個有效運用大腦空間的秘訣,可以讓您學習、考試無往不利喔。


周樹華老師英語學習 Q&A
周樹華老師英語學習 Q&A

認識語言能力指標 CEFR

前次貼文有給同學們介紹 BBC Learning English: Vocabulary 單字學習網站。出現的單字旁邊有 A1、A2、B1、B2、C1、C2 的標示。這是由歐盟議會所設計的語言能力指標Common European Framework of Reference for Language: Learning, Teaching, Assessment 歐洲語言學習、教學、評估共同參考框架簡稱CEFR。CEFR 將語言能力,依照聽、說、讀、寫、互動等數個面向,界定為六級──A1、A2、B1、B2、C1、C2。A1、A2= Basic User;B1、B2= Independent User;C1、C2= Proficient User。

  海上情書(Trapped At Sea, Lost In Time)


隨著國際學術交流的頻繁,參與國際學術研討會已是國內學者、教授及研究生學術生涯中不可或缺的經歷。但由於大家普遍對自己的英文信心不足,往往以背誦的方式來完成論文的口語發表(presentation),導致臺下無法完全聽懂內容,亦或之後的 Q&A 也無法進行有效的學術互動。因此一篇極具價值的學術論文,若缺乏專業的口語報告訓練,就可能在學術交流的效果上被大打折扣。



Scientists: Wind, Drought Worsen Fires, Not Bad Management
VOA News
November 12, 2018 4:44 PM Associated Press (source)

Scientists: Wind, Drought Worsen Fires, Not Bad Management


November 12, 2018 4:44 PM

Associated Press

Both nature and humans share blame for California's devastating wildfires, but forest management did not play a major role, despite President Donald Trump's claims, fire scientists say.
Nature provides the dangerous winds that have whipped the fires, and human-caused climate change over the long haul is killing and drying the shrubs and trees that provide the fuel, experts say.
"Natural factors and human-caused global warming effects fatally collude" in these fires, said wildfire expert Kristen Thornicke of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany.
Multiple reasons explain the fires' severity, but "forest management wasn't one of them," University of Utah fire scientist Philip Dennison said.
Trump tweeted on Saturday: "There is no reason for these massive, deadly and costly forest fires in California except that forest management is so poor. Billions of dollars are given each year, with so many lives lost, all because of gross mismanagement of the forests."
The death toll from the wildfire that incinerated the town of Northern California town of Paradise and surrounding areas climbed to 29, matching the mark for the deadliest single blaze in California history. Statewide, the number of fire dead stood at 31, including two victims in Southern California.
One reason that scientists know that management isn't to blame is that some areas now burning had fires in 2005 and 2008, so they aren't "fuel-choked closed-canopy forests," Dennison said.
In those earlier fires, Paradise was threatened but escaped major damage, he said. In the current blazes, it was virtually destroyed.
The other major fire, in Southern California, burned through shrub land, not forest, Dennison said.
"It's not about forest management. These aren't forests," he said.
The dean of the University of Michigan's environmental school, Jonathan Overpeck, said Western fires are getting bigger and more severe. He said it "is much less due to bad management and is instead the result of our baking of our forests, woodlands and grasslands with ever-worsening climate change."
Wildfires have become more devastating because of the extreme weather swings from global warming, fire scientists said. The average number of U.S. acres burned by wildfires has doubled over the level from 30 years ago.
As of Monday, more than 13,200 square miles (34,200 square kilometers) have burned. That's more than a third higher than the 10-year average.
From 1983 to 1999, the United States didn't reach 10,000 square miles burned annually. Since then, 11 of 19 years have had more than 10,000 square miles burned, including this year. In 2006, 2015 and 2017, more than 15,000 square miles burned.
The two fires now burning "aren't that far out of line with the fires we've seen in these areas in recent decades," Dennison said.
"The biggest factor was wind," Dennison said in an email. "With wind speeds as high as they were, there was nothing firefighters could do to stop the advance of the fires."
These winds, called Santa Ana winds, and the unique geography of high mountains and deep valleys act like chimneys, fortifying the fires, Thornicke said.
The wind is so strong that fire breaks — areas where trees and brush have been cleared or intentionally burned to deprive the advancing flames of fuel — won't work. One of the fires jumped over eight lanes of freeway, about 140 feet (43 meters), Dennison said.
Southern California had fires similar to the Woolsey fire in 1982, when winds were 60 mph, but "the difference between 1982 and today is a much higher population in these areas. Many more people were threatened and had to evacuated, [sic]" Dennison said.
California also has been in drought for all but a few years of the 21st century and is now experiencing its longest drought, which began on Dec. 27, 2011, and has lasted 358 weeks, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor. Nearly two-thirds of the state is abnormally dry.
The first nine months of the year have been fourth-warmest on record for California, and this past summer was the second-hottest on record in the state.
Because of that, there are 129 million dead trees, which provide fuel for fires, Thornicke said.
And it's more than trees. Dead shrubs around the bottom of trees provide what is called "ladder fuel," offering a path for fire to climb from the ground to the treetops and intensifying the conflagration by a factor of 10 to 100, said Kevin Ryan, a fire consultant and former fire scientist at the U.S. Forest Service.
While many conservatives advocate cutting down more trees to prevent fires, no one makes money by cutting dead shrubs, and that's a problem, he said.
Local and state officials have cleared some Southern California shrub [sic], enough for normal weather and winds. But that's not enough for this type of extreme drought, said Ryan, also a former firefighter.
University of Alberta fire scientist Mike Flannigan earlier this year told The Associated Press that the hotter and drier the weather, the easier it is for fires to start, spread and burn more intensely.
It's simple, he said: "The warmer it is, the more fire we see."
For every 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit that the air warms, it needs 15 percent more rain to make up for the drying of the fuel, Flannigan said.
Federal fire and weather data show the years with the most acres burned were generally a degree warmer than average.
"Everyone who has gardened knows that you must water more on hotter days," Overpeck said. "But, thanks in part to climate change, California isn't getting enough snow and rain to compensate for the unrelenting warming caused by climate change. The result is a worsening wildfire problem.

專家說,大自然帶來促發(whip)火災的危險風勢,而人為的氣候變遷(climate change)就長期來說(over the long haul),正逐步扼殺並使灌木叢(shrub)枯竭,而此舉將產生引火源(fuel)
這些火災中,「自然因素和人為的全球暖化效應致命地(fatally)串連(collude)在一起」,位於德國的波茲坦氣候衝擊影響研究所(Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research,PIK)的野火專家克莉斯汀.索爾尼克(Kristen Thornicke)說。
多重因素解釋了為何這些火災如此猛烈(severity),但「森林管理並非其中之一。」美國猶他大學(University of Utah)的消防科學家菲利普.丹尼森(Philip Dennison)說。
川普在星期六(編按:2018 年 11 月 10 日)的推文中寫道:「除了森林管理不善外,沒有別的理由能解釋這場發生在加州,大規模造成人民傷亡與財物損失的森林火災。儘管每年投入數十億的資金,依舊奪走無數條性命,這全是因嚴重的(gross)森林管理不當所致。」
這場將北加州天堂鎮(town of Paradise)和周圍區地區作灰燼(incinerate)的野火釀成 29 人死亡(toll),名符其實地成為加州史上最致命的一場烈焰(blaze)。死於火災的人數遍及全州達31 人,包含 2 名南加州的受害者。
科學家認為不應責難管理方式的原因之一在於有些起火地區早在 2005 和 2008 年就發生過火災,所以它們並不是那種「會使燃料無法燃燒且密閉的樹冠(canopy)森林。」丹尼森說。
美國密西根大學(University of Michigan)環境學院院長強納森.歐弗佩克表示,美西的火災有越趨擴大且嚴重的情形。他說這「跟管理不善關係不大,而是出自愈形惡化的氣候變遷帶來的高溫烘烤森林、林地(woodland)草地(grassland)的緣故。」
消防科學家表示,由全球暖化形成的極端氣候使得野火日益險惡。過去 30 年來,美國境內被野火燒毀的平均英畝數已呈現雙倍成長。
迄星期一(編按:2018 年 11 月 12 日)為止,超過 1 萬 3200 平方英里(等同於 3 萬 4200 平方公里)遭焚毀,這已經超過平均 10 年來第三高的紀錄。
從 1983 到 1999 年,美國每年被燒掉的土地面積不足一萬平方英里。然自那時起,19 年中有 11 年每年超過一萬平方英里遭燒毀,包括今年在內。2006 年、2015 年和 2017 年皆有逾 1 萬 5000 平方英里被焚毀。
「目前這兩場火災並未超乎於(out of line with . . .)近幾十年來我們在這些地區目睹的事故」,丹尼森坦言。
索爾尼克指出,這些被稱作聖塔安那風(Santa Ana winds)的風勢,與獨特的高山低谷地形如煙囪般地增強(fortify)了火勢。
風勢之強勁連帶使得火勢摧毀為阻擋火舌蔓延,而特別清除並先行燒毀的樹林與灌木叢。其中一場火災甚至翻越近 140 英尺(約 43 公尺)的 8 線道高速公路。
南加州的火災與 1982 年的伍爾西大火(Woolsey fire)極其相似,兩者皆出現在風勢達到 60 英里之際,「但不同之處在於比起 1982 年,現今這些地區的人口大幅成長。更多人備受威脅且必須撤離(evacuate)。」丹尼森說。
加州同時也遭受 21 世紀初幾年的旱災(drought)。美國的乾旱監控(U.S. Drought Monitor)資料顯示,當地目前正飽受有史以來最漫長的乾旱之苦,此旱災自 2011 年 12 月 27 日起至今已長達 358 週,境內近三分之二的地區處於異常(abnormally)乾燥的狀態。
今年頭 9 個月的氣溫是加州史上(on record)的第四高溫,而剛過去的這個夏天亦成為該州有紀錄以來第二炎熱的季節。
「正因如此,有 1 億 2900 萬棵樹木死亡,為野火提供了燃料。」索爾尼克說。
曾在美國林業署(U.S. Forest Service)供職的火災顧問凱文.萊恩(Kevin Ryan)表示,不只樹木遭殃而已,在樹底枯死的矮木叢會形成所謂的「燃點梯」,為火勢從地面向樹頂竄升提供路徑,且擴大火災(conflagration)程度 10 到 100 倍(by a factor of . . .)
加拿大阿爾伯塔大學(University of Alberta)防災學家麥克.弗拉尼根(Mike Flannigan)在今年初告訴美聯社(Associated Press)說,氣候越是炎熱乾燥,越容易引起火災,且蔓延和燃燒的程度亦猛烈(intensely)
只要華氏溫度(Fahrenheit)每上升 1.8 度,就需要多 15% 的雨量平衡愈發乾燥的燃點,弗拉尼根說。
「有栽種經驗的人都知道,在熱天裡必須要澆灌更多的水」,歐弗佩克說,「然而,部分因為(thanks to . . .)氣候變遷的關係,加州缺乏足夠的降雪和降雨來彌補(compensate)氣候變遷造成的持續(unrelenting)暖化。這樣的下場就是更加惡化的野火問題。」

Language Notes

whip [hwɪp] [wɪp] (v) 鞭笞,抽打;猛然挪動(或拿取,拔出等);迅速作成;然在本文中意指 激起,煽動,有促使之意

over the long haul (prep phr) 以長期來說

shrub [ʃrʌb] (n) 矮樹,灌木

fuel [`fjʊəl] (n) 燃料;刺激因素    * 本字也可作動詞,意指「為 . . . . . . 添加燃料」或「加強;激起」

collude [kə`lud] (v) 共謀;串通;本文中意指兩個因素刻意地連結在一起    * 注意本字重音在第 2 音節

severity [sə`vɛrətɪ] (n) 嚴格;嚴厲;嚴肅;猛烈;凜冽;嚴重,嚴峻    * 注意本字重音在第 2 音節    * severe [sə`vɪr] (a) 非常嚴重的;劇烈的;慘重的

toll [tol] (n) 損失;傷亡人數

incinerate [ɪn`sɪnə͵ret] (v) 燒成灰;焚化;灰化    * 注意本字重音在第 2 音節

blaze [blez] (n) 火焰;火災;熊熊燃燒;強烈的光,光輝    * 本字也可作動詞,意即「熊熊燃燒」或「閃耀;發亮光」

out of line with something (prep phr) 出格;越軌;與 . . . . . . 相差懸殊

conflagration [͵kɑnflə`greʃən] (n) 大火,大火災    * 注意本字重音在第 3 音節

unrelenting [͵ʌnrɪ`lɛntɪŋ] (a) 持續的;未減弱的    * 注意本字重音在第 3 音節;另一常見意思為「堅定不移的;不鬆懈的;不屈不撓的」

Check your vocabulary!

Fill in the blanks with a word or phrase from the list above. Make necessary changes. After you finish, highlight the blanks to reveal the hidden answers.

1. I don't think you quite understand the severity of your father's health problems.
2. The spacecraft and its crew were miserably incinerated by the billion-degree temperatures generated by the fireball.
3. Several local officials are in jail on charges of colluding with the gangsters.
4. Serious conflagration was under way, which was not extinguished until about one-third of the city, including several of its historic buildings, had been destroyed.
5. In the face of severe opposition and unrelenting criticism, the task seemed overwhelming.
6. Numerous African countries have put their faith and trust in the United States to support this initiative over the long haul.

編譯:外語教學暨資源中心 編輯小組