臺大外語教學暨資源中心英語學習報第 342 期 發行日期 2018-06-15

  Uncertain Future Awaits Syria's ChildrenRead more on VOA.

Uncertain Future Awaits Syria's Children


Ten-year-old Khaled lives in a refugee camp in the countryside of Idlib, Syria. He has wide gray eyes and looks serious in front of the camera, but his friends and caregivers call him the "head of mischief."
  現年 10 歲的卡勒德(Khaled)住在敘利亞(Syria)伊德利卜市(Idlib)郊外的難民營(refugee camp)。他有雙灰色大眼,在相機鏡頭前看來一臉嚴肅,但他的朋友和看護員(caregiver)卻稱呼他為「搗蛋(mischief)大頭目」。


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Uncertain Future Awaits Syria's Children
VOA News
May 26, 2018 7:14 PM  Nisan Ahmado (source)

Uncertain Future Awaits Syria's Children


May 26, 2018 7:14 PM

Nisan Ahmado

Ten-year-old Khaled lives in a refugee camp in the countryside of Idlib, Syria. He has wide gray eyes and looks serious in front of the camera, but his friends and caregivers call him the "head of mischief."
Khaled lost his father five years ago when Islamic State militants abducted him in Idlib. That was the last time Khaled saw his father.
"Khaled's father got out from the house heading to Friday prayers, then disappeared. We searched everywhere for him. Later we learned that militants from IS had taken him, and he just disappeared," Khaled's mother, who did not want to be named, told VOA.
Khaled, his mother and 6-year-old twin brothers moved several times from one refugee camp to another as the Syrian government's warplanes kept striking camps in the area. They finally settled in the Uthman ibn Affan camp for orphans and refugees, where they are currently living.
"One day, Syrian government jets attacked our village. We survived," Khaled's mother said, recalling the horror that she and her children experienced.
Khaled is only one among thousands of children who have lost their parents to the war in Syria.
Syrian activist Omar Omar, who arranges entertainment for children living in refugee camps in Idlib's countryside, told VOA that the organization he works for is caring for more than 6,000 children in the area who have lost one or both parents.
"Some orphans are living with family members, like grandparents, uncles and aunts. Some are separated from their entire families, and they are supported by humanitarian organizations," Omar said.
His is just one organization caring for 6,000 children in one area. The total number of children who lost their parents could be in tens of thousands of children.

Perpetual war
The war in Syria broke out in 2011, and within a couple of years it had resulted in tens of thousands of deaths, according to estimates from opposition activist groups. But IS's emergence in 2013, after a split with what was then known as the al-Nusra Front, an al-Qaida affiliated group, further increased the suffering of ordinary people in the country. IS engaged in clashes with rebels first in Idlib and later expanded to other areas of the country, including Raqqa in the east, which became the IS de facto capital.
Since then, civilian casualties have soared. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, a Britain-based monitoring group, said that as of March 2018, more than 510,000 had been killed in the war. A lot of those killed left behind children and families.
In a 2017 study published by Save the Children, a global nonprofit organization working for children's well-being, about 77 percent of adults told researchers that they knew of children who had lost one or both parents in the Syrian civil war.
Eighteen percent said they knew of children who were "living alone with no choice but to fend for themselves with little community or institutional support. Many have to work in farms or in shops, steal or beg on the streets, or join armed groups to get by," the report said. Some have had to undertake grownup responsibilities and become breadwinners for their families.
The report did not have an actual figure for the total number of orphaned children in the country.

Impact on education
According to Save the Children, more than 4,000 attacks have taken place on schools in Syria since the war broke out, which has seriously affected children's education. The organization warned that if measures were not taken, the interruption in education could have serious implications for Syria's postwar society.
The impact of being deprived of education is worse on orphaned children, because they lack the parental guidance that is needed.
Manar Qarra, general manager of the Selam Orphanage in Gaziantep, Turkey, told VOA that education is a key priority in rehabilitating orphans so that they can gain confidence and depend on themselves in the absence of one or both parents.
But she says that's not enough.
"We also focus on developing children's skills and enabling the children to discover themselves and plan for their futures," Qarra said.
Qarra added that children who have been out of school for years cannot simply go back to school, especially when there are psychological problems that could prevent them from succeeding in their studies. She said remedial instruction and therapy may be needed.
The oldest girl in Qarra's orphanage is Shahira Qaddour, 21, who came to the orphanage five years ago, along with her five younger sisters, from Homs governorate in central Syria.
Shahira and her sisters lost both of their parents. Syrian government forces killed her father. Her mother and a toddler sister were also killed in an airstrike that hit their house. Shahira and the remaining sisters miraculously survived the attack, and activists helped the girls come to Selam Orphanage.
At the orphanage, Shahira loves taking pictures and aspires to work as a photographer one day. Selam Orphanage uses many of the pictures she takes on its social media pages and website.

Exploitation concerns
Activists like Qarra are concerned that children who lost their caregivers in Syria are at risk of being forced into labor, marriage or service in armed groups.
"The orphan who comes to our center is a war orphan. The child not only suffers from the loss of a parent but also homelessness, fear and deprivation," she said.
Qarra added that traumatized mothers, who experienced abuse and sexual harassment in the past, should not be ignored by aid groups, because their emotional breakdowns and reactions could directly affect their children.
Qarra said that children affected by the war in Syria carry hidden wounds that go beyond physical loss, and with no end in sight to the conflict, they cannot regain a sense of normalcy.

現年 10 歲的卡勒德(Khaled)住在敘利亞Syria伊德利卜市Idlib)郊外的難民營(refugee camp)。他有雙灰色大眼,在相機鏡頭前看來一臉嚴肅,但他的朋友和看護員(caregiver)卻稱呼他為「搗蛋(mischief)大頭目」。
伊斯蘭國Islamic State)的激進分子(militant)於 5 年前(編按:2013 年)擄走(abduct)了卡勒德的父親,使得他自那時起便失去了父親。那也是他最後一次看到父親。
不願具名的卡勒德母親向《美國之音》Voice of America,VOA)表示:「(5 年前)卡勒德的爸爸離家前往(head to . . .)星期五的禮拜儀式,然後就失蹤了。我們到處找他,後來才曉得伊斯蘭國的激進分子帶走了他,他就這樣失蹤了。」
由於敘利亞政府的戰鬥機(warplane)持續襲擊(strike)當地幾處難民營,卡勒德和母親以及 6 歲的雙胞胎弟弟搬了好幾次家。他們最後在「奧斯曼.伊本.阿凡(Uthman ibn Affan)」這個為孤兒(orphan)和難民設立的營地安頓(settle)下來,目前也居住於此。
〔編按:奧斯曼.伊本.阿凡Uthman ibn Affan)原是伊斯蘭教Islam)歷史上的第三代哈里發Caliphate,為「最高統治者」之意)。新聞中的孤兒院以這位統治者的名字為名。〕
敘利亞的社會運動人士(activist)奧馬爾.奧馬爾(Omar Omar)平日為生活於伊德利卜市郊外難民營的孩童安排娛樂活動。他向《美國之音》表示,他所服務的機構正照顧(care for . . .)著該區 6000 名以上失去了父母親之一或雙親皆失的孩童。
奧馬爾所服務的機構僅是單一地區的一個組織,照料該區 6000 名兒童。失去父母親的兒童總數則可能有數萬名。

根據反對(opposition)敘利亞政府的團體估算(estimate),於 2011 年爆發(break out)的敘利亞戰爭僅在數年間就造成(result in)成千上萬人死亡。而伊斯蘭國在與一個時稱「努斯拉陣線al-Nusra Front)」的蓋達組織al-Qaida附屬(affiliated)團體分裂(split)後,於 2013 年崛起(emergence),又更增加了敘利亞國內平民百姓的苦難折磨(suffering)。伊斯蘭國首先在伊德利卜市涉入(engage in)了和反抗者(rebel)之間的衝突(clash),接著擴張到敘利亞境內的其他地區,包括在敘利亞東部的拉卡市Raqqa),該市後來則成為了伊斯蘭國實質上(de facto)的首都。
〔編按:1)努斯拉陣線原是蓋達組織在敘利亞和黎巴嫩Lebanon)的分支。此團體於 2016 年 7 月 28 日宣布改名為「征服沙姆陣線(Jabhat Fateh al-Sham)」並自此脫離蓋達組織。2)蓋達組織是一個伊斯蘭教軍事組織,由賓.拉登Osama bin Laden)在 1988 年成立。聯合國安全理事會United Nations Security Council,UNSC)將其列為世界恐怖組織之一。〕
自那時起,平民(civilian)傷亡人數(casualty)持續驟升(soar)。位於英國的監督組織「敘利亞人權瞭望臺Syrian Observatory for Human Rights)」表示,至 2018 年 3 月,共計超過 51 萬人在戰火中喪生。許多往生者身後留下(leave behind)子女和家屬。
〔編按:「敘利亞人瞭望臺」於 2006 年 5 月成立,旨在為發生於敘利亞的傷害人權事件(human rights abuses)記錄並建檔。自 2011 年起,該組織持續關注敘利亞內戰Syrian Civil War)。〕
「救助兒童會(Save the Children)」是一個為促進兒童福利(well-being)而設的全球性非營利組織(nonprofit organization, NPO )。其在 2017 年出版的研究報告指出,約有 77% 的成年人向研究人員表示,他們知道身邊有因敘利亞內戰(civil war)而失去父母親之一或雙親皆失的孩童。
〔編按:「救助兒童會」又稱為「救助兒童基金會(The Save the Children Fund)」,於 1919 年 4 月 15 日在英國成立,是一個全球性的非政府組織non-governmental organization,NGO),長期致力於提倡兒童人權children's rights),並提供開發中國家developing country)的兒童必要的救援和資源,協助他們成長。〕
研究報告中亦有 18% 的受訪者表示,他們知道「有獨自一人居住的孩童,且因缺乏社區或機構的協助,不得不自謀生計(fend for . . .)。很多孩童必須在農場或商店裡工作,在街頭行竊或行乞,又或是參加武裝團隊(armed group)餬口飯吃(get by)。有些孩童已必須承擔(undertake)成人的(grownup)責任,成為家中負擔家計的人(breadwinner)
這份研究報告並未對敘利亞境內因戰火成為孤兒的兒童(orphaned children)的總人數提出一個確切的數字。

根據救助兒童會的統計,自從戰爭爆發以來,敘利亞已發生逾 4000 起攻擊學校的事件,已嚴重影響(affect)孩童的教育。該組織發出警告表示,若未採取因應措施(measure),則孩童的教育中斷(interruption)有可能為戰後的(postwar)敘利亞社會帶來嚴重的後果(implication)
成為孤兒的孩童由於缺少成長所需要的家長的引導(parental guidance),因此當教育機會被剝奪(deprive)時,其所受到的(負面)影響(impact)更甚。
塞拉姆孤兒院(Selam Orphanage)位於土耳其Turkey加吉安特市Gaziantep),其總經理(general manager)瑪納爾.卡拉(Manar Qarra)向《美國之音》表示,使孤兒恢復正常生活(rehabilitate)關鍵要務(key priority)在於教育,透過接受教育,他們才能獲得信心,在缺少父母親之一或雙親皆缺少的情況下獨立生活。
「我們也著重於(focus on . . .)發展這些孩子的技能,使他們能夠發掘自我潛能並為將來打算。」卡拉如此說道。
現年 21 歲的莎希拉.加鐸爾(Shahira Qaddour)是卡拉服務的孤兒院裡年紀最長的女孩。她和她的 5 個妹妹於 5 年前(編按:2013 年)從敘利亞中部的霍姆斯Homs governorate)搬來這個孤兒院居住。

許多和卡拉一樣的社會運動人士擔心(concerned),這些失去照顧者的敘利亞兒童正處於被迫勞動、婚配,或為武裝團隊效勞的危險(ar risk of . . .)
卡拉補充說道,由於許多母親在情緒上的崩潰(breakdown)和反應可能直接影響她們的子女,因此救援團體不該忽視這些過去因歷經虐待(abuse)性騷擾(sexual harassment)受到心理創傷(traumatize)的母親們。
卡拉表示,受到敘利亞戰爭影響的孩童背負著隱形的創傷(hidden wounds),這些創傷超過(go beyond)有形的損失,且因目前的軍事衝突(conflict)仍無可預見的(in sight)終止之日,他們亦無法重拾(regain)正常(normalcy)生活。

Language Notes

refugee [͵rɛfju`dʒi] (n) 難民;避難者;逃亡者    * 注意重音在最後一音節;本字為可數名詞,複數形:refugees

mischief [`mɪsʧɪf] (n)(尤指兒童的)搗蛋,惡作劇;頑皮,淘氣

* mischievous [`mɪsʧɪvəs] (a)(人、行為等)愛惡作劇的,好搗亂的;頑皮的,淘氣的

militant [`mɪlətənt] (n) 激進分子;好鬥者;富有戰鬥性的人    * 本字也可作形容詞,意指「激進的;好戰的,好鬥的;行動積極的」

abduct [æb`dʌkt] (v) 劫持;綁架;誘拐

orphan [`ɔrfən] (n) 孤兒;失去母獸的小動物    * 本字也可作動詞,表示「使 . . . . . . 成為孤兒」;新聞第 14 段有被動語態修飾名詞的用法 "orphaned children",意即「成為孤兒的兒童」

* orphanage [`ɔrfənɪʤ] (n) 孤兒院;孤兒身分;(總稱)孤兒

perpetual [pɚ`pɛtʃuəl] (a) 永久的,永恆的;長期的

result in something (v phr) 導致,引起;結果造成 . . . . . .    * 注意本片語表達事情發生後的結果,另一相似片語 "result from something"「因 . . . . . . 發生」則表達事情發生的原因

estimate [`ɛstə͵mət] (n) 估計;估算;估價;估計數    * 本字亦可當動詞,發音為 [`ɛstə͵met],意即「估計;估算;估價」

de facto [de`fækto] (a) 實際上的,事實上的;實質的    * 本字也可當副詞,指「實際上地;事實上地」

casualty [`kæʒjuəltɪ] (n)(嚴重事故或戰爭中的)傷亡人員

soar [sor] (v) 猛增,驟升    * 本字亦常指「往上飛舞,升騰」或「(鳥或飛行器)翺翔,飛翔」

fend for oneself (v phr) 照顧、養活自己;自謀生計;獨立生活

* fend [fɛnd] (v) 供養;照料

undertake [͵ʌndɚ`tek] (v) 承擔,接受    * 本字另一常見意思為「試圖;著手做;進行,從事(尤指耗時或困難之事)」

measure [`mɛʒɚ] (n) 方法;措施;手段    * 本字指「方法;措施;手段」時,常使用複數形,即 "measures";也可作動詞,意即「量,測量;計量」

implication [͵ɪmplə`keʃən] (n) 可能的影響;可能的後果    * 本字也常指「含意;言外之意;暗示」或「牽連;涉及;捲入」

* imply [ɪm`plaɪ] (v) 暗指;暗示;意味著 . . . . . .

deprive [dɪ`praɪv] (v) 剝奪,從 . . . . . . 奪走;使喪失 . . . . . .    

* deprivation [͵dɛprɪ`veʃən] (n) 缺失,缺乏,匱乏;剝奪;損失

rehabilitate [͵rihə`bɪlə͵tet] (v) 使康復;使恢復(正常生活);使(囚犯)獲得改造    * 注意重音在第 3 音節;本字有一縮寫字 "rehab"「使康復;使改過自新」,重音在第 1 音節([`rihab])

remedial [rɪ`midɪəl] (a) 補救的;矯正的;治療的;改善的

* remedy [`rɛmədɪ] (n) 補救(辦法),糾正(辦法);治療;治療法

aspire [ə`spaɪr] (v) 追求;渴望;有志於 . . . . . . 

exploitation [͵ɛksplɔɪ`teʃən] (n)(出於私利的)利用;剝削    * 本字另一常見意思為「開發;開採」

* exploit [ɪk`splɔɪt] (v)(出於私利的)利用;剝削;開發,開採,開拓

traumatize [`trɑmə͵taɪz] (v) 使 . . . . . . 受損傷;使 . . . . . . 受精神/心理創傷    * 新聞第 26 段有被動語態修飾名詞的用法 "traumatized mothers",意即「受到心理創傷的母親們」

* trauma [`trɑmə] (n) 外傷,傷口;(感情、精神或心理等方面的)創傷

abuse [ə`bjuz] (n) 虐待;傷害    * 本字也可作動詞;另一常見意思為「(尤指出於個人私利的)濫用;妄用」

harassment [hə`ræsmənt] (n) 煩擾;騷擾;騷擾行為    * 本字由動詞 "harass"「 騷擾;使煩惱,打擾」和名詞字尾 "-ment" 組合而成

* sexual harassment (n phr) 性騷擾

breakdown [`brek͵daʊn] (n) 崩潰;破裂;(精神、體力等的)衰弱,衰竭    * 本字另一常見意思為「(機器等的)故障,損壞」

* nervous breakdown (n phr) 神經失常;神經衰弱

in sight (prep phr) 看得見;在眼前;. . . . . . 在望;可預見的

normalcy [`nɔrml̩sɪ] (n) 常態;正常    * 本字由形容詞 "normal"「普通的;平常的;正常的」和名詞字尾 "-cy" 組合而成

Check your vocabulary!

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1. Though forced to work at a very early age, these children are rehabilitated in these centers and prepared for regular education so that after a year or two they can join the local schools.
2. Hospitals are on standby ready to deal with casualties being flown in from the crash site.
3. He's her de facto husband, though they're not actually married.
4. In West Africa, the chocolate industry benefits from the exploitation of child workers in cocoa fields.
5. In the wild, if a female with a young one gets killed, other females may take care of the young one till it is old enough to fend for itself.
6. The seemingly compassionate phrase, 'Don't worry,' eases few people of their perpetual worries.
7. New safety measures were being demanded after last night's horrific train crash.
8. Johnson aspires to become the city's first woman mayor.
9. The reasons are manifold but the main ones are poverty and a distinct lack of commitment by governments to ensure that no child is deprived of quality education.
10. The community of this tranquil village has been shocked and traumatized by this senseless and barbaric crime.
11. Early identification and intervention is much easier than remedial education in late years.
12. Regular exercise can result in a general diminution in stress levels.
13. There seems to be no one prepared to undertake the responsibility of deciding the long term position.
14. This election has profound implications for the future of U.S. democracy.
15. There appears to be no end in sight to the indefinite strike at Rossington Colliery, near Doncaster.